The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) methodology involves the precipitation of antibody/antigen complexes via a chromatic enzyme marker.
Antibodies specific for a food antigen are measured via ELISA by using isolated and purified food antigens bound to the surface of an array plate and an individual’s stabilised whole blood is added to the wells of the plate. If the individual’s blood has antibodies to the food antigens contained in each well, the antibodies will bind to these antigens. These antibodies, if any, can then be detected via an enzymatic reaction that is detectable by a highly sensitive colorimetric spectrophotometer.
The Antigen Leukocyte Antibody Test (ALCAT)
The ‘Leukocytotoxic’ test was originally postulated and developed in the late 1950s. The fundamental hypothesis of the test was that if a patient’s white blood cells are mixed with an offending allergen, they should swell. Therefore the test involves measuring any swelling of leukocytes after adding them to concentrated allergen solutions. If a certain threshold of swelling is measured a positive result would be recorded.
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